ageing in the world
November 2022, in total 427 power reactors are in operation and 56 new reactors
are under construction worldwide. The age distribution is presented in Figure. From this amount, 65 VVER reactors are in operation in 12 countries and about
20 VVERs are under construction. In EU countries, 19 VVER units are in
operation. The next 12 are in Ukraine. The high level of safe, effective,
reliable, and long-term operation (LTO) behind the projected lifetime with
lifetime extension up to 60-80 years and without a former general designer is
the real and actual challenge for the European nuclear community.